It is at a distance of about 15 Km from Kakinada on Kakinada Yanam Road. Coringa Sanctuary, named after a tiny village coringa in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh a part of Godavari Mangroves was declared as a wildlife sanctuary by Govt. of Andhra Pradesh vide G.O.Ms.No – 484, Forests and Rural Development (For.III) Department dated 5-7-1978 was to conserve the mangrove vegetation of the estuary, extending in an area of about 235.Sq.Kms. It is located between 16o-30′ to 17o-00′ N latitudes and 82o-14′ to 82o-23’E longitudes. Mangroves are salt – tolerent forest ecosystems of tropical and sub – tropical intertidal regions of the world. They normally occur between high waterlevel and near about mean sea level along the sheltered shores, estuaries, tidal creeks, back-waters, lagoons, marshes and mud-flats.
Where conditions favour the Mangroves may form extensive and productive forests in the sheltered coastal lines. The mangrovees contain a highly specialised community of plants associated with animal species which are not capable of surviving in any other situations. Mangrove occur in Andhra Pradesh in estuaries of Krishna and Godavari rivers. Andhra Pradesh has got an area of 582 Sq.KM.of Mangrove forests, accounting for about 9% of local forest area of the State, which amounts to just about 2% of the local geographical area of the State. Even the entire land under mangroves do not contain fully the Mangrove vegetation. The area includes forest of open blanks. Sandy patches and Mud-flats.
The District Wise distribution of mangrove forests are as below:
|DISTRICT||AREA IN HECTARES|
Importance of Mangroves to Mankind
- Mangroves forest act as a barrier against the coastal storms, high velocity winds, and the high tidal waves thus protecting the villages and the agricultural land.
- Mangroves are a highly productive ecosystem, and supply nutrients to the marine living resources and thus increasing the Fish, Prawn, Crab etc., production.
- Mangroves provide shelter to the wildlife particularly as nesting ground for migratory birds.
- They protect the coast-line from erosion and also it reclaims land from the sea.
- They build up and extend coastal soil by accumulation and stabilisation of sediments.
- They provide highly valued products like timber for boat building, Bark for tanning, Seedlings for food etc.
Thirty Five Plant Species are present in this sanctuary belonging to twenty four families. The Plants species commonly found here are
|Species||Telugu Names||Species||Telugu Names||Species||Telugu Names|
|Avicennia officinalis||Nalla Mada||Avicennia marina||Tella Mada||Avicennia alba||Vilva Mada|
|Excoecaria agallocha||Tilla||Rhizophora mucronata||Uppu Ponna||Ceriops decandra||Calhasu|
|Bruguiera gymnorrhiza||Oorudu||Lumnitzera recemosa||Thanduga||Sonneratia apetala||Kalinga|
|Aegiceras corniculatum||Guggilam||Thespesia populneoides||Attakanarai||Hibiscus tiliaceous||Gangaravi|
Avicennia marina. A officinalis and A.alba representing the family Avicenniaceae and Excoecaria agallocha belonging to Euphorobiaceae are dominant. The Mangrove plants exhibit interesting adaptations such as stilt roots as in Rhozophora, Pneumatophores (respiratory roots) in Avicennia and Sonneratia, viviparous seedlings in Rhizophora, Bruguiera and Ceriops.A part from the above tree species shrubs like Dalbegia spinosa ( Chillangi), Derris trifoliata (Nallatheega). Acanthus ilicifolius (Alchi) and Clerodendrum inerme (Pisingi) and herbs like Sesuvium portulacastrum, Suaeda maritima (IIakura), Suaeda monoica (IIakura) and Salicornia brachiatta and grasses like Aeluropus lagopoides. Porteresia coarctate (Yelugaddi) and Myriostachya wightiana (Dabbagaddi) are also found in the sanctuary.
Fauna of Mangroves
The fauna found in mangroves is unique and cannot survive in any other ecological situation. Mangroves provide different varieties of conditions for the habitation of variety of animal population. The crowns of trees including trunk, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits provide niches essentially, to terrestrial fauna like birds, mammals and insects. The soil surface of mangroves provide niche for mudskippers, crabs and molluses. The water in the forest supports a variety of animals like the smooth Indian Otters (Mud skipper, Crab) Jackal Monkeys and Fishing cat. The Sanctuary has an unique distinction of having a 18 Km. long sand spit in the North Eastern side, where the species of Olive Ridley sea turtle ( endangered species) nests during January – March every year.
Apart from these animals, mangroves invariably attract large populations of birds which feed on various organisms occurring in the mangrove forest and in the back water. During the low tide some of the areas are exposed (elevated mud flats having small fishes, shrimps, molluses) attracting avafauna for its feed. Over 120 species of birds are reported and among them the following are the common birds found in the Sanctuary.
|Little Egret||Cattle Egret||Pied Kingfisher||Small Blue KingFisher||Black Capped KingFisher|
|Pond Heron||Reef Heron||Grey Heron||Night Heron||Little Stint|
|Sand Piper||Red Shrank||Red Wattle-Lapwing||Crow Pheasant||Flamingos|
|Sea Gulls||Purple Heron||Brahmini Kite||Open Bill Stork||Little Cormorant|
For purpose of conserving, improving and developing the existing mangroves the following conservation strategies are adopted. Bring mangroves under the network of protected areas. Demarcation of MANGROVES, and Mangrove sanctuaries including the core areas to avoid encroachments.
Taking up various protection measures by intensified watch and ward. Taking up of large scale afforestation of blanks by digging channels at 12.5 mts. apart. The seedlings of 60 cms height. The seedlings grown in the nursery are planted on sloped edges of the channels at 2.0 mts apart staggered through the funds from the World bank Assistance and the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Forming Eco – Development Committees for the Conservation of man groves through participatory approach towards conservation by providing welfare measures/alternatives to the villagers living around the sanctuary to reduce the dependency on the mangroves and at the same time enhancing the livelihood of the coastal community. Setting up of Nature Study center to educate the local people regarding the importance of fragile ecosystem and the necessity for it’s protection and it’s role in the environment.
This sanctuary is easily accessible from Kakinada. East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh, The Kakinada town is well connected by rail and road. The sanctuary can be visited from places viz;Chollangi, Matlapalem or Ramannapalem which are located on Kakinada to Yanam Road about 10 – 15 Km. distance from Kakinada
December to June: By boat and By foot.
Forest Rest Houses are available at :
- Kakinada. Contact:Division Forest Officer (Territorial), Madhavanagar, Kakinada, Phone no: 0884 – 2379381 or Phone no: 0884 – 2367460
- Rajahmundry. Contact:Division Forest Officer, Wildlife Management Division,Opp. Govt. Arts College, Rajahmundry-3. Phone no: 0883 – 2448643
|The conservator of forests,
Phone no: 0883 – 2444247
|(OR)||Divisional Forest Officer,
Wildlife Management Division